The Burzahom (3000 BCE to 1000 BCE.) is an archaeological and UNESCO World Heritage site located in the Valley of Kashmir which dates back to 3000 BC and 1000 BC.
It coexisted with the Indus valley civilization (3300 – c. 1300 BCE), Mesopotamia (c. 3100 BC), and many other notable civilizations.
Meaning of Burzahom
Burzahom translates to ‘place of birch‘ in Kashmiri.
The excavation at Burzahom was carried out in both vertical (depth-wise) and horizontal directions; the depth provided the stratification features while the phasing of each stratification was provided by the horizontal excavations. Four periods of continuous occupational sequence at the site were documented over a period of 11 years of investigations from 1960 to 1971.
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These are Periods I and II of the Neolithic (Period I is called aceramic and Period II is called ceramic) origin, particularly characterized by dwelling pits (the largest measuring 2.74 meters (9 ft 0 in) at the top to 4.75 meters (15.6 ft) at the base at a depth of 3.95 meters (13.0 ft)).
Period III of the Megalithic sequence noted by the free-standing large stone Menhirs installed at the site by shifting boulders manually from the hills; and Period IV of the Early Modern Period. The skeletal remains of the Neolithic humans found at Burzahom are similar to those found in Harappa of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Its ceramic industry was mostly of hunting-based culture and is different from the Chinese Neolithic pottery. The economy of the people was found to be based on hunting and gathering with a nascent stage of cultivation practices.
Pottery made here showed close affinity to those found in the Swat valley in Pakistan, particularly in respect of the shapes and decorations of the blackware pottery. The burial practices and type of tools recovered from the site were inferred as having a close resemblance to those found in the North Chinese Neolithic culture.